Harriett Shepard and Lenore Meyer, Posing for the Camera, Hastings House, 1960


Forearm positions are established by noting the position of the wrist in relation to the elbow. Since the elbow is the pivot point, the position of the forearm is determined after the upper arm is set. In its normal position the forearm also hangs down and its four basic positions are designated by the same terms as the upper arm; out, up, in or down or by indicating intermediate positions as in and down, up and out, in and up and out and down. This circle must also face the camera regardless of the direction the body turns while posing.